September 29th, 2022

Big Bang to Humankind

Magnetic Fields

  • Moving charges creates a magnetic field.
  • The magnetic north pole of the Earth is moving (and we don’t know why).
  • Magnetic poles flip every once in a while.
    • We can tell by looking at fault lines and seeing which way metal slivers in rocks are pointing and how old these rocks are (further from fault line = older; at fault line = newly created rock).
  • Planets in The Big Chill phase (not geologically active anymore) have less of a magnetic field.


  • Aurora are charged particles from the sun interacting with our magnetic field.
    • The lines in the image = the lines of our magnetic field

Things hitting Earth

  • Material is constantly hitting Earth (~30,000 tons/year)
  • Asteroids hit Earth and have amino acids and organic materials. These materials form in space.


Stratigraphy: the idea that lower rocks are older.


All continents used to be connected.


  • Rocks separated by big distances are exactly the same.
  • Fossils of animals that couldn’t have swam so far are found on multiple continents.
  • Coal found in Antarctica.
    • Coal comes from forests and dead animals (carbon-rich).
  • Continental shelf fits together ~perfectly.


Convection in the Earth makes tectonic plates “surf” and moved continents apart.